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comparison of shear bond strength of metal brackets

Comparison of shear bond strength of metal brackets

AIM To evaluate and compare the shear bond strength of metal brackets bonded to ceramic surfaces using different conditioning methods and to assess the site of bond failure after debonding. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 70 ceramic surfaces were produced with uniform shape, size and composition. The samples were divided into 7 groups (each of 10 samples). How does surface conditioning affect shear bond strength?How does surface conditioning affect shear bond strength?R. Blakey and J. Mah, Effects of surface conditioning on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded to temporary polycarbonate crowns, American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, vol. 138, no. 1, pp. 7278, 2010. View at Publisher Site Google ScholarShear Bond Strength of Three Orthodontic Bonding Systems on Enamel Which is a site of shear bond failure?Which is a site of shear bond failure?Shear Bond Strength 4 the enamel or traumatic injury to the surrounding structures. Broadly speaking, the sites of bond failure can be divided into three anatomical sites, which are; within bracket, between cement and enamel surface and between cement and bracket (Jassem, et al., 1981) (H, et al., 1998).Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets

Which is better shear bond strength ceramic or metal?Which is better shear bond strength ceramic or metal?The shear bond strength of ceramic bracket is superior to that of metal brackets in a variety of adhesives used. However, it has been established that the ceramic bracket occurred predominantly in the enamel-adhesive interface, while the site for bond failure for the metal bracket was found to be mainly in the bracket-adhesive interface.Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic BracketsA comparison of shear bond strength of orthodontic comparison of shear bond strength of metal brackets

Objectives The objective of this study is to compare the shear bond strength (SBS) of stainless steel (SS) orthodontic brackets bonded with four different orthodontic adhesives. Materials and Methods Eighty newly extracted premolars 0 were bonded to 0.022 SS brackets (Ormco, Scafati, Italy) and equally divided into four groups based on adhesive used (1) Rely-a-Bond (self-cure adhesive comparison of shear bond strength of metal bracketsA comparison of shear bond strengths of metal and ceramic comparison of shear bond strength of metal bracketsApr 01, 1988Abstract. The study measures and compares shear bond strength data obtained from metal, ceramic, and ceramic-filled plastic brackets bonded td human incisor teeth with a heavily filled composite resin. The mean values for groups of different types of brackets were not statistically significant. The site of failure was commonly at the resin/bracket interface except for the ceramic-filled plastic brackets, which frequently showed failure of the bracket

A comparison of shear bond strengths of metal and ceramic comparison of shear bond strength of metal brackets

May 01, 1988The study measures and compares shear bond strength data obtained from metal, ceramic, and ceramic-filled plastic brackets bonded to human incisor teeth with a heavily filled composite resin. The mean values for groups of different types of brackets were not statistically significant.Author Chitra Martalia, Citra Anggitia, Thalca Hamid, Jusuf SjamsudinPublish Year 2020What is shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets?What is shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets?A comparison of shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded with four different orthodontic adhesivesA comparison of shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded Author Chitra Martalia, Citra Anggitia, Thalca Hamid, Jusuf SjamsudinPublish Year 2020Shear bond strength of self-ligating orthodontic brackets comparison of shear bond strength of metal bracketsAbu Alhaija ES, Al-Wahadni AM. Shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded to different ceramic surfaces. Eur J Orthod 2007;29:386-9. 2. Gillis I, Redlich M. The effect of different porcelain conditioning techniques on shear bond strength of stainless steel brackets. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1998;114:387-92. 3.

Author Gaurang H. Chaudhary, Gianina Salton Mattevi, Peter Thiuri Gakunga 7 minsPublish Year 2017Comparative study for evaluating the shear bond

Shear bond strength of ceramic brackets with various base designs bonded to aluminous and fluorapatiteceramics. Eur J Orthod. 2010 Feb;32(1):87-93. 9. Tozlu M Oztoprak MO, Arun T. Comparison , of shear bond strengths of ceramic brackets after different time lags between lasing and debonding. Lasers Med Sci. 2012 Nov;27(6):1151-5. 10.Author Homa Farhadifard, Loghman Rezaei-Soufi, Maryam Farhadian, Parisa ShokouhiPublish Year 2020Comparison of Shear Bond Strength of Two Self-etch Primer comparison of shear bond strength of metal bracketsJan 01, 2006The self-etch primer/adhesive is made of two components that mix automatically during application. The brackets were then light cured for 20 seconds. The mean shear bond strength of the twostep acid-etch primer/adhesive was 5.9 ± 2.7 Mpa and the mean for the one-step system was 3.1 ± 1.7 MPa. The in vitro findings of this study indicated comparison of shear bond strength of metal bracketsAuthor Karamdeep Singh Ahluwalia, Amit Gupta, Isha Gaurav, Nitul Jain, Rakesh Garg, Nidhi GuptaPublish Year 2013A comparison of shear bond strength of orthodontic comparison of shear bond strength of metal bracketsORIGINAL ARTICLE Year 2014 Volume 3 Issue 2 Page 29-33 A comparison of shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded with four different orthodontic adhesives Sudhir Sharma 1, Pradeep Tandon 1, Amit Nagar 1, Gyan P Singh 2, Alka Singh 1, Vinay K Chugh 1 1 Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopaedics, Faculty of Dental Sciences, CSM Medical University,

Author Nuri Mert Topbasi, Yasin Atakan BenkliPublish Year 2020Effect of sandblasting on the shear bond strength of comparison of shear bond strength of metal brackets

Literature is divided regarding the Shear Bond Strength (SBS) associated with sandblasted brackets. Hence this systematic review was conducted to obtain conclusive evidence on the same. The aim was to compare the SBS between sandblasted brackets bonded to extracted human teeth and new brackets bonded on extracted teeth that have not been comparison of shear bond strength of metal bracketsAuthor SharmaPublish Year 2014Comparison of surface conditioning methods on shear bond comparison of shear bond strength of metal bracketsJan 01, 2015(6) The present study aimed to compare the shear bond strength of metal brackets on ceramic surfaces using different surface treatment methods. (i) 37% Phosphoric acid (ii) 9% HF (iii) Sand blasting (50-120 [micro]m) and (iv) Extra fine bur (20-30 [micro]m).Author Shiva Alavi, Soroor Samie, Seyed Amir Hossein Raji 6 minsPublish Year 2021COMPARISON OF SHEAR BOND STRENGTH OF THE May 20, 2021Introduction In orthodontic treatment, it is essential to establish a satisfactory bond between enamel and bracket. After the self-etch primers (SEPs) were introduced for the facilitation of bracket bonding in comparison to the conventional etch-and-bond system, multiple studies have been carried out on their shear bond strengths which have yielded different results.

Author Sibel Cetik, Thaï Hoang Ha, Léa Sitri, Hadrien Duterme, Viet Pham, Ramin AtashPublish Year 2019Comparison of the shear bond strength of brackets

40 Rodríguez CJA et al. Comparision of the shear bond strength of brackets between two adhesive systems medigraphic.mx bracket was positioned over the enamel surface with a positioned (Boone caliber MASEL 4000-900) to align the buccal surface of each toothCOMPARISON OF SHEAR BOND STRENGTHS OF METAL when bonding brackets to ceramic surfaces. The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets that were bonded with a universal adhesive against a control group that had brackets bonded with a separate silane on two different types of ceramic material.Cited by 135Publish Year 1988Author A. John GwinnettShear bond strength of brackets on restorative materials comparison of shear bond strength of metal bracketsFeb 19, 2016The purpose of this work was to analyze surfaces consisting of different restorative materials for shear bond strength (SBS) and failure patterns of metal and ceramic brackets. Bonding involved the use of a universal primer (Monobond&Plus, Ivoclar Vivadent). Six restorative materials were tested, including one composite resin (Clearfil Majesty Posterior, Kuraray Noritake Dental), one comparison of shear bond strength of metal brackets

Cited by 135Publish Year 1988Author A. John Gwinnettcomparative study of shear bond strength between metal

IntroductionMaterials and MethodsResultsDiscussionConclusionsFundingCeramic brackets (CBs) were introduced to the market in the mid-1980s to address the increasing aesthetic demands of orthodontic patients (Birnie, 1990; Verstrynge et al., 2004). These are made of aluminum oxides, which have many advantages such as biocompatibility, good aesthetics, and resistance to temperature and chemical changes (Harris et al., 1992; Karamouzos et al., 1997). There are two types of CBs polycrystalline and monocrystalline alumina CBs (Bordeaux et al., 1994; Bishara and Fehr, 199See more on academic.oupCited by 76Publish Year 2012Author Ladan Eslamian, Ali Borzabadi-Farahani, Nasim Mousavi, Amir Ghasemi 7 minsComparison of shear bond strength of rebonded brackets comparison of shear bond strength of metal bracketsComparison of shear bond strength of rebonded brackets with four methods of adhesive removal. Yassaei S(1), Aghili H, KhanPayeh E, Goldani Moghadam M. Author information (1)Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Shahid Sadoughi, University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.Cited by 13Publish Year 2016Author Thomas Ebert, Laura Elsner, Ursula Hirschfelder, Sebastian HankeEvaluation of the bond strength of orthodontic brackets comparison of shear bond strength of metal bracketsSep 30, 2020Objective This study evaluates the shear bond strength (SBS) and Vickers micro-hardness (VHN) of the orthodontic adhesive resin Transbond XT using thermocycled samples. The study also measures the degree of cure by poliwave light curing unit Valo. Materials and Methods 135 brackets were bonded for the SBS test, and 90 disc-shaped orthodontic adhesive resins were Cited by 188Publish Year 1988Author Jan Ødegaard, Dietmar SegnerA comparison of shear bond strength of orthodontic comparison of shear bond strength of metal bracketsDOI 10.4103/2278-0203.132892. Abstract. Objectives The objective of this study is to compare the shear bond strength (SBS) of stainless steel (SS) orthodontic brackets bonded with four different orthodontic adhesives. Materials and methods Eighty newly extracted premolars were bonded to 0.022 SS brackets (Ormco, Scafati, Italy) and equally divided into four groups based on adhesive used (1) Rely-a-Bond

Cited by 1Publish Year 2013Author Nazeer Ahmed Meeran, Ashwin Mathew GeorgeShear Bond Strength of Three Orthodontic Bonding Systems comparison of shear bond strength of metal brackets

AbstractIntroductionMaterials and MethodsResultsDiscussionConclusionsEthical ApprovalAcknowledgmentsObjective. The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the shear bond strength (SBS) and adhesive remnant index (ARI) score of two self-etching no-mix adhesives (iBond and Scotchbond) on different prosthetic surfaces and enamel, in comparison with the commonly used total etch system Transbond XT.Materials and Methods. A total of 270 surfaces (1 enamel and 8 restorative surfaces, ) were randomly divided into three adhesive groups. In group 1 (control) brackets were bonded with TransbonSee more on hindawiCited by 14Publish Year 2016Author Andreas Hellak, Jennifer Ebeling, Michael Schauseil, Steffen Stein, Matthias Roggendorf, Heike Korbm comparison of shear bond strength of metal bracketsThe Shear Bond Strengths of Metaland Ceramic Brackets An comparison of shear bond strength of metal bracketsThe bonding strength of ceramic brackets has been shown to be significantly higher than that of metal brackets. The high bond strength results from silanization of the bracket base, mechanical retention, or both [6,7]. The silane coupling agents have been reported to enhance the bond strength Cited by 1Publish Year 2013Author Ravadgar Mehdi, Arash Valiollah, Pachenari HamidComparison of Bond Strength of Metal and Ceramic Brackets comparison of shear bond strength of metal bracketsObjectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of conventional and high-power light emitting diode (LED) light curing units on shear bond strength (SBS) of metal and ceramic brackets to tooth surface. Materials and Methods Forty sound bovine maxillary central incisors were used for the study. The teeth were divided into four groups (n=10).Cited by 1Publish Year 2019Author Yeim Kaya, Beyza Ünalan Deirmenci, Alperen DeirmenciFactors affecting the shear bond strength of metal and comparison of shear bond strength of metal bracketsIntroductionMaterials and MethodsResultsDiscussionConclusionsFundingMost adult patients usually present with restored teeth. Dental ceramic is widely used to restore missing or damaged teeth. Various types of ceramics have been developed. These vary in chemical composition, method of manufacture, and physical properties. All-ceramic restorations, also known as free metal restorations, are among the most recent types of ceramics. These include conventional powder and slurry, castable, machinable, pressable, and infiltrated ceramics (Rosenblum and Schulman, 1997). ThSee more on academic.oupCited by 25Publish Year 2010Author Elham S J Abu Alhaija, Issam A Abu AlReesh, Ahed M S AlWahadni 8 minsShear bond strength of metal brackets compared with a new comparison of shear bond strength of metal bracketsSep 01, 1988They also showed greater shear bond strength than the mesh brackets, but this difference was not significant. mesh brackets demonstrated a significantly higher shear bond strength than the grooved brackets. ough a "no-mix" adhesive demonstrated lower shear bond strength, the results indicate that "nomix" adhesives, based on a BIS=GMA resin, and pastepaste adhesives can be used to bond these new brackets.

Cited by 3Publish Year 2019Author Alvaro Della Bona, Ricardo Kochenborger, Luís A. Di GuidaEffect of various commercially available mouthrinses on comparison of shear bond strength of metal brackets

Aims The aims and objectives of the present study were to evaluate (1) Whether there is a significant difference in the shear bond strength of metal orthodontic brackets after the 1 year (12 h) and 2 years simulation (24 h) of mouth rinsing with 4 different commercially available mouthrinses (2 alcoholic and 2 alcohol-free mouthrinses) when comparison of shear bond strength of metal bracketsCited by 3Publish Year 2019Author Blerim Mehmeti, Jeta Kelmendi, Donika Iiljazi-Shahiqi, Bleron Azizi, Suzana Jakovljevic, Fehim Halit comparison of shear bond strength of metal bracketsEffect of different surface treatments on shear bond comparison of shear bond strength of metal bracketsNov 25, 2020Kaya Y, Deirmenci BÜ, Deirmenci A. Comparison of the shear bond strength of metal orthodontic brackets bonded to long-term water-aged and fresh porcelain and composite surfaces. Turk J Orthod. 2019;32:28. Article Google Scholar 3. Padipatvuthikul P, Mair LH.Cited by 3Publish Year 2019Author Fereshteh Shafiei, Ahmadreza Sardarian, Reza Fekrazad, Reza Fekrazad, Amin FarjoodA Clinical Comparison of Failure Rates of Metallic and comparison of shear bond strength of metal bracketsAbstractIntroductionMaterials and MethodsResultsDiscussionConclusionsObjective. Clinical comparison of the survival rates between stainless steel and ceramic brackets over a 12-month period. Materials and Methods. The study involved 20 consecutive patients with diagnosed malocclusion that required two-arch fixed appliance treatment. The participants were randomly divided into two 10-member groups. Group 1 was treated with Abzil Agile (3M Unitek) stainless steel brackets; group 2 was treated with Radiance (American Orthodontics) monocrystalline ceramic brackets. All the bSee more on hindawiCited by 2Publish Year 2020Author Tomasz Ogiski, Beata Kawala, Marcin Mikulewicz, Joanna Antoszewska-SmithShear Bond Strength of Orthodontic BracketsNov 05, 2014Ultimately, both materials have its advantages and disadvantages (John Gwinnett, 1988). One of the most common reasons for popularity of ceramic braces is their aesthetic appeal, in comparison to the metal counterpart. The shear bond strength of ceramic bracket is superior to that of metal brackets in a variety of adhesives used.

Cited by 53Publish Year 2014Author Sudhir Sharma, Pradeep Tandon, Amit Nagar, Gyan P Singh, Alka Singh, Vinay K ChughComparison of shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets comparison of shear bond strength of metal brackets

Bracket bond strength was tested using a chisel edge blade at the bracket/enamel interface, in a universal testing machine (Zwick/Roell, Z020, Ulm, Germany), in such a way that the bracket base was parallel to the direction of shear loading, creating shear force at the bracket-enamel interface at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min, with a load comparison of shear bond strength of metal bracketsCited by 53Publish Year 2014Author Sudhir Sharma, Pradeep Tandon, Amit Nagar, Gyan P Singh, Alka Singh, Vinay K ChughComparison of shear bond strength of three bonding agents comparison of shear bond strength of metal bracketsOct 01, 1999Ceramic brackets showed statistically higher shear bond strengths than metal brackets when bonded with all test materials (p<0.001). When used with metal brackets, the light-cured glass ionomer cement (LCGIC) and compomer materials demonstrated statistically lower shear bond strengths than the light-cured composite ( p <0.01 and p <0.001, respectively).Cited by 54Publish Year 1999Author Bülent Haydar, Simten Sartkaya, Zafer C. ÇehreliComparison of Shear Strength of Metal and Ceramic comparison of shear bond strength of metal bracketsRESULTS The differences were significant between the metallic (SMB, LMB) and ceramic (SCB, LCB) bracket groups with regard to shear bond strength, with respectively 23.29 ± 5.34 MPa, 21.59 ± 4.03 MPa, 20.06 ± 4.05 MPa, and 17.55 ± 3.88 MPa. In terms of surface treatment, no statistical differences were found between the different groups.

Cited by 77Publish Year 2006Author Samir E Bishara, Raed Ajlouni, John F Laffoon, John J WarrenBond Strength of Ceramic and Metal Orthodontic Brackets to comparison of shear bond strength of metal brackets

A comparative study of shear bond strength between metal and ceramic brackets and artificially aged composite restorations using different surface treatments. Eur J Orthod 2012; 34(5) 610-7. [43]Cited by 7Publish Year 2014Author Soghra Yassaei, Abdolrahim Davari, Mahjobeh Goldani Moghadam, Ahmad Kamaei 6 minsShear bond strength of metallic brackets bonded to enamel comparison of shear bond strength of metal bracketsJun 14, 2021Mean, standard deviation, 95% confidence interval and range were calculated for shear bond strength, while frequencies and percentages were calculated for Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI). Comparison between the three study groups was done using One-Way-ANOVA for shear bond strength, and Kruskal Wallis test for the ARI index.Cited by 9Publish Year 2014Author S. Yassaei, H. Aghili, E. KhanPayeh, M. Goldani moghadamComparison of Shear Bond Strength of Four Types of comparison of shear bond strength of metal bracketsDec 01, 2017The overall mean bond strengths were 8.49 ± 2.93, 10.85 ± 3.34, 9.42 ± 2.97, and 9.73 ± 2.62 for the Groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 brackets, respectively. One-way ANOVA test gave an F = 3.182 with a P = 0.026. The Group 1 and Group 2 were observed to have statistically significant difference

Comparing Two Orthodontic Adhesives Orthodontic Products

Oct 04, 2019In vitro analysis of shear bond strength and adhesive remnant index of different metal brackets. Dent Press J Orthod. 2016 Dec;21(6):6773. Elekdag-Turk S, Isci D, Turk T, Cakmak F. Six-month bracket failure rate evaluation of a self-etching primer.Comparison of Shear Bond Strength Orthodontic Brackets comparison of shear bond strength of metal bracketsTranslate this pageComparison of Shear Bond Strength Orthodontic Brackets Bonded to Zirconia and Lithium Disilicate Crowns. comparison of shear bond strength of metal brackets Topcuoglu T, Oksayan R, Topcuoglu S, Coskun ME, Isman NE. Effect of Er YAG laser pulse duration on shear bond strength of metal brackets bonded to a porcelain surface. Photomed Laser Surg. 2013 Jun;31(6):2406.Comparison of Shear Bond Strength of Metal Brackets clinically useful method of bonding orthodontic metal brackets onto porcelain surfaces. The objectives of the present study are to evaluate and compare the shear bond strength of metal brackets bonded to ceramic surfaces using conditioning methods namely roughening with diamond bur; sandblasting; hydrofluoric acid etching; roughening with

Comparison of Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic

Comparison of Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets Using Direct and Indirect Bonding Methods in Vitro and in Vivo ABSTRACT Aim Aim of article was to compare the shear bond strength of indirectly and directly bonded ortho-dontic brackets. Materials and methods The experimental in vitro study included 60 maxillary and mandibular premolars.Comparison of Shear Bond Strength of RMGI and Composite comparison of shear bond strength of metal bracketsMay 01, 2014The shear bond strength of ceramic brackets was significantly higher than that of metal brackets. The highest value of SBS (20.17 MPa) belonged to ceramic brackets bonded with light-cured composite resins and the lowest SBS (4.45 MPa) belonged to metal brackets bonded with light-cured glass ionomer cement.Comparison of Shear Strength of Metal and Ceramic comparison of shear bond strength of metal bracketsAug 26, 2019ic ( SCB, LCB) bracket gr oups with regard to shear bond strength, with respectively 2 3.29 ± 5.34 MPa, 21.59 ± 4.03 MPa, 20.06 ± 4.05 MPa, and 17.55 ± 3.88 MPa. In terms of surface treatment, no statistical differences were found between the different groups. Conclusion Metal brackets have a greater bond strength than ceramic brackets when

Comparison of lithium disilicatereinforced glass ceramic comparison of shear bond strength of metal brackets

Sep 11, 2020The maximum shear bond strength of each sample was measured in N (newton) and then divided by the cross-sectional area of the bracket (11.13 mm 2) to obtain the shear bond strength in MPa. The bond failure site for each bracket was evaluated under a stereomicroscope (SM P200, HP, USA) at × 10 magnification and classified according to adhesive remnant index (ARI) (Artun and Comparison of shear bond strength of stainless steel comparison of shear bond strength of metal bracketsComparison of shear bond strength of stainless steel brackets bonded with three light- cured adhesives. Caspian J Dent Res 2015; 4:27-32. Comparison of shear bond strength of stainless steel brackets bonded with three light- cured adhesives Zahra Minaei Basharik(DDS)1, Manouchehr Rahmati Kamel(DDS)2, Pouyan Amini Shakib(DDS)3,Comparison of shear bond strength of the stainless steel comparison of shear bond strength of metal bracketsCaspian journal of dental research (2013-09-01) . Comparison of shear bond strength of the stainless steel metallic brackets bonded by three bonding systems

Comparison of shear bond strengths of orthodontic brackets comparison of shear bond strength of metal brackets

Shear bond strength was measured with a universal testing machine, and the mode of bracket/adhesive failure was determined according to the adhesive remnant index. RESULTS The shear bond strengths of all 4 groups exceeded what is believed to be clinically sufficient strength Comparison of the Shear Bond Strength of Metal Jun 09, 2020Comparison of the Shear Bond Strength of Metal Orthodontic Brackets Bonded to Long-term Water-aged and Fresh Porcelain and Composite Surfaces - PubMed. It was concluded that the aged restoration materials have a distinctive influence on the SBS of metal orthodontic brackets. It was concluded that the aged restoration materials have a distinctive influence on the SBS of metal orthodontic brackets.Original Article Comparison of the Shear Bond Strength The aim of the present study was to compare the shear bond strength (SBS) of metal orthodontic brackets bonded to long-term water-aged and fresh porcelain and composite surfaces. To the best of our knowledge, there are no studies in the litera-ture that have compared the SBS of metal orthodontic brackets

Shear bond strength of orthodontic metal brackets to

with the use of three primers on shear bond strength (SBS) of metal brackets to aged composite. Material and Methods In this in vitro, experimental study, 60 Filtek Z250 composite discs were fabricated (10×2mm), immersed in distilled water for 24 hours and subjected to The comparison of shear bond strength of metal comparison of shear bond strength of metal bracketsThe comparison of shear bond strength of metal orthodontics bracket to porcelain surface using silane and single bond An in vitro study Chitra Martalia, Citra Anggitia, Thalca Hamid, Jusuf Sjamsudin Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia. Correspondence Address Prof. Thalca HamidThe comparison of shear bond strength of metal comparison of shear bond strength of metal bracketsThe comparison of shear bond strength of metal orthodontics bracket to porcelain surface using silane and single bond An in vitro study. J Int Oral Health [serial

comparison of shear bond strength of

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